What is the definition of nutrition and structures in Science?

There’s a follow-up question after this: What is the comparison and contrast between the structures, nutrition and reproduction of the 5 kingdoms ( Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae)?

Please reply A.S.A.P. Thanks for helping.

The five-kingdom classification of organisms
Nomenclature: Naming of organisms
Binomial: Biological name of an organism → Genus species
Taxon: Set of organisms within a category / Taxonomy / Study of biological classification
Different levels of taxons: SPECIES, GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM, KINGDOM
Most number of species on right
Most similar organisms on left
Unicellular: Single cell; Colonial: Groups of cells; Multicellular: Many cells
Autotrophs produce energy from inorganic sources
Phototrophs from photosynthesis/sunlight
Chemotrophs from simple inorganic (oxidative) processes
Heterotrophs digest and absorb organic molecules

Prokaryotae (prokaryotes)
Cell structure:
Prokaryotes, unicellular
Prokaryotes lack cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotes
Cell wall: murein
Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis), aerobic heterotrophs
Divide by binary fission, not by mitosis
≈10μm in size (bacterial cell, filaments of blue-green bacteria)
Mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the root of legumes / symbiotic

Protoctista (protoctists)
Cell structure: eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular
Cell wall: (sometimes) polysaccharide
Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic
Placed in this category by exclusion / cannot be placed in any other kingdom
Slime moulds / fungi characteristics
Protozoa / heterotrophic and ingest food
Algae / photosynthesis
≈10μm (amoeba) – 1m (Laminaria / large brown alga)

Fungi
Cell structure: eukaryotes, multicellular and unicellular (yeast)
Cell wall: chitin
Nutrition: heterotrophic / saprotrophic decomposers or parasitic
Genus Penicillium
Body of a fungus is composed of thin filaments called hyphae / form a mycelium
Secret enzymes / external digestion / absorbs resulting nutrients
Erect hyphae that grow upwards from the mycelium carry their reproductive spores
Chains of spores on the erect hyphae / coloured mould visible on stored food
Break down organic matter

Plantae (plants)
Cell structure: only multicellular, eukaryotic; large vacuoles
Cell wall: cellulose
Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthetic)
Growth is restricted to meristems (layers/patches of dividing cells)
Non-motile; adapted to land / strong tissues, leave gas exchange system, waterproofed
Eg mosses, ferns, conifers, angiosperms (flowering plants)

Plant kingdom has two different types of adults in their life cycle
Gametophytes, hidden in plant / sexual reproduction forms multicellular zygotes
Sporophytes, what we call plant / asexual reproduction to form spores that germinate into gametophytes
Gametophyte (n) → gamete (n) → fertilisation → zygote (2n) → mitosis → sporophyte (2n) → meiosis → spore (n) → mitosis → gametophyte (n)

Animalia (humans, animals)
Cell structure: eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell wall
Develop form a blastocyst / embryo
Have nervous and hormonal control systems
No cell wall!
Nutrition: heterotrophic, involving a digestive system
Are motile and grow throughout tissues (no mersitems)

One Response to “What is the definition of nutrition and structures in Science?”

  1. omega Says:

    The five-kingdom classification of organisms
    Nomenclature: Naming of organisms
    Binomial: Biological name of an organism → Genus species
    Taxon: Set of organisms within a category / Taxonomy / Study of biological classification
    Different levels of taxons: SPECIES, GENUS, FAMILY, ORDER, CLASS, PHYLUM, KINGDOM
    Most number of species on right
    Most similar organisms on left
    Unicellular: Single cell; Colonial: Groups of cells; Multicellular: Many cells
    Autotrophs produce energy from inorganic sources
    Phototrophs from photosynthesis/sunlight
    Chemotrophs from simple inorganic (oxidative) processes
    Heterotrophs digest and absorb organic molecules

    Prokaryotae (prokaryotes)
    Cell structure:
    Prokaryotes, unicellular
    Prokaryotes lack cytoplasmic organelles found in eukaryotes
    Cell wall: murein
    Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthesis, chemosynthesis), aerobic heterotrophs
    Divide by binary fission, not by mitosis
    ≈10μm in size (bacterial cell, filaments of blue-green bacteria)
    Mutualistic nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the root of legumes / symbiotic

    Protoctista (protoctists)
    Cell structure: eukaryotes, unicellular and multicellular
    Cell wall: (sometimes) polysaccharide
    Nutrition: autotrophic, heterotrophic
    Placed in this category by exclusion / cannot be placed in any other kingdom
    Slime moulds / fungi characteristics
    Protozoa / heterotrophic and ingest food
    Algae / photosynthesis
    ≈10μm (amoeba) – 1m (Laminaria / large brown alga)

    Fungi
    Cell structure: eukaryotes, multicellular and unicellular (yeast)
    Cell wall: chitin
    Nutrition: heterotrophic / saprotrophic decomposers or parasitic
    Genus Penicillium
    Body of a fungus is composed of thin filaments called hyphae / form a mycelium
    Secret enzymes / external digestion / absorbs resulting nutrients
    Erect hyphae that grow upwards from the mycelium carry their reproductive spores
    Chains of spores on the erect hyphae / coloured mould visible on stored food
    Break down organic matter

    Plantae (plants)
    Cell structure: only multicellular, eukaryotic; large vacuoles
    Cell wall: cellulose
    Nutrition: autotrophic (photosynthetic)
    Growth is restricted to meristems (layers/patches of dividing cells)
    Non-motile; adapted to land / strong tissues, leave gas exchange system, waterproofed
    Eg mosses, ferns, conifers, angiosperms (flowering plants)

    Plant kingdom has two different types of adults in their life cycle
    Gametophytes, hidden in plant / sexual reproduction forms multicellular zygotes
    Sporophytes, what we call plant / asexual reproduction to form spores that germinate into gametophytes
    Gametophyte (n) → gamete (n) → fertilisation → zygote (2n) → mitosis → sporophyte (2n) → meiosis → spore (n) → mitosis → gametophyte (n)

    Animalia (humans, animals)
    Cell structure: eukaryotic, multicellular, no cell wall
    Develop form a blastocyst / embryo
    Have nervous and hormonal control systems
    No cell wall!
    Nutrition: heterotrophic, involving a digestive system
    Are motile and grow throughout tissues (no mersitems)
    References :

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